(1) Industrial chain composition
The manufacturing of power batteries has undergone four steps: battery materials, batteries, battery modules, and battery packs, and its industrial chain constitutes
- Preparation of raw materials: cathode materials, anode materials, electrode substrates, separators, electrolytes, etc.
- Cell manufacturing: electrode plate production, cell packaging, charging and discharging testing, safety performance testing, etc.
- Battery pack integration: battery module grouping, battery pack performance testing, battery pack safety protection, battery management system, etc.
- Terminal applications: electric vehicles, electric bicycles, electric tools, high-power appliances, etc.
(2) Current status of industry development
From the report Analysis of the Global Hybrid Electric and Electric Vehicle Lithiur-ion Battery Market released by Frost&Sullivan in June 2012, it can be seen that in 2010, the market competition of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles The number of ion battery companies has reached more than 35, with a total revenue of 500 million US dollars. Among them, the main factors affecting competitive performance are battery cost, vehicle performance, technology, reliability, partnerships, and customer relationships. Application terminals mainly include hybrid electric vehicles, pure electric vehicles and plug-in electric vehicles.
In 2010, the world’s top 5 lithium-ion battery manufacturers were South Korea’s LG Chem, with a market share of 17.6%; Japan’s AESC with a market share of 16.3%; Japan’s Panasonic with a market share of 11.4%; and the United States’ A123 with a market share of 11.4%. Share 8.7%; and SB LiMotive, a joint venture between Germany and South Korea, with a market share of 5.4%. These 5 companies contributed 59.4% of the market’s sales share.
In 2010, the global hybrid and electric vehicle market revenue reached 502 million U.S. dollars. Among them, South Korea’s LG Chemical’s revenue was 883 billion U.S. dollars, Japan’s AESC was 818 billion U.S. dollars, Panasonic’s was 572 billion U.S. dollars, and the U.S. A123 system was 437 billion U.S. dollars. SB LiMotive, a joint venture between Germany and South Korea, has revenues of US$272.1 billion. The combined revenue of the five companies accounted for nearly half of the total market revenue, and they are the main suppliers for the production of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.
Among the top seven automotive lithium-ion battery manufacturers in the world in 2012, 1 was a US company, and the remaining 6 were companies in Asian countries, including 4 Japanese companies and 2 South Korean companies. The power lithium-ion battery manufacturers with a market share of more than 10% are South Korea’s LG Chem, accounting for 19.4%; Japan’s AESC, accounting for 19.4%, and Japan’s Yuasa, accounting for 13.8%. The 47th place is respectively Panasonic 8.3%, Johnson Controls 4.4%, Hitachi Vehicle Energy 4.4%, and Samsung SD 12.2%.
As a result of maintaining good relations with automakers, South Korea’s LG Chem has become the current market leader. In addition to the production of lithium-ion batteries, it also provides various other auto parts, and is chosen by many manufacturers as the battery supplier. For example, the main supplier of Chevrolet Volt is LG Chem. Nissan enjoys a good quality reputation in the electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle manufacturing industry. The exclusive battery supplier for its Leaf product is Japan’s AESC. The American A123 system has strong infrastructure construction. The company is located in the Detroit area close to the three major US automakers, and its geographical location is of important strategic significance.
(3) Analysis of market supply and demand
Benefiting from the market changes of hybrid vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles that used nickel-metal hydride batteries to gradually switch to using lithium-ion batteries, the demand for lithium-ion batteries for vehicles has seen rapid growth since 2011. According to CCID Consulting’s analysis, the global lithium-ion battery industry reached US$27.81 billion in 2013, and it will reach US$37.46 billion in 2014. Driven by the industrialization of new energy vehicles, the global lithium-ion battery industry reached 523.2 in 2015. One hundred million U.S. dollars.
From the perspective of market structure, within the lithium-ion battery industry, from 2013 to 2015, the proportion of power batteries will gradually increase. In 2014, lithium-ion power batteries accounted for 33.4% of the total internal total, and ordinary lithium-ion batteries accounted for 66.6%. By 2015, the proportion of the two will be closer, and the proportion of lithium-ion power batteries will rise to 49.2%. The proportion of ion batteries dropped to 50.8%.
Judging from the supply and demand status of China’s power-type lithium-ion battery materials, the supply and demand of lithium borate and lithium manganate in the positive electrode materials are balanced, and the supply of lithium iron phosphate is in short supply; the supply of negative electrode materials is sufficient and the competitive landscape is stable; the electrolyte (electrolyte) can be satisfied in China. However, the electrolyte lithium hexafluorophosphate relies on imports; the lithium-ion battery separator has not yet achieved localization, and basically depends on imports.